Vitamin Deficiency Diseases

Vitamin deficiency is commonly seen in many malnutrition diseases.

Vitamin A

The deficiency of vitamin A is relatively common in developing countries.

Symptoms and signs

  • Night blindness
  • Complete blindness
  • Increased susceptibility to infections
  • Lack of appetite
  • Dry and rough skin and hair
  • Poor wound healing

Treatment of vitamin deficiency

Eat foods rich in vitamin A in the diet.

  • Animal liver is among the richest sources of vitamin A.
  • Cod liver oil
  • Sweet potato
  • Carrots are rich in beta carotene
  • Beans are an excellent source of plant-based protein and Vitamin A
  • Spinach and Broccoli are other healthful sources of vitamin A
  • Mangos are rich in antioxidants, dietary fibre and Vitamin A
  • Pumpkin is rich in beta carotene.
  • Tomatoes and tomato juice contain lutein and zeaxanthin, which benefit eye health also.

Vitamin B1

Causes

Alcoholism

Symptoms and signs

  • Manifestation of beriberi; nervous system disorder
  • Severe lethargy
  • Fatigue
  • Inability to derive energy
  • Difficulty in walking
  • Loss of muscle with muscle wasting

Treatment

  • Administration of thiamine in the form of thiamine hydrochloride tablets or injections.
  • B1-rich diet( like yeast and pork)
  • Ayurvedic Medicines

Vitamin B2

Causes

Symptoms and signs

  • Sore throat
  • Swelling
  • Redness of the mouth
  • Cheilosis
  • Angular stomatitis
  • Glossitis
  • Seborrheic dermatitis

Treatment

Foods rich in riboflavin, like meat, eggs, cheese, and yoghurt.

Vitamin B3

This vitamin deficiency, or niacin, leads to pellagra.

 Causes

  • Alterations of protein metabolism in the body
  • A staple diet of maize.

Signs and symptoms

  • Alopecia
  • Ataxia
  • Dementia
  • Dermatitis
  • Diarrhoea
  • Insomnia
  • Photosensitivity
  • Weakness

Treatment

Niacin-rich foods in the diet like,

  • Liver
  • Chicken
  • Tuna 
  • Turkey
  • Salmon 
  • Peanuts 
  • Avocado 
  • Whole-wheat products, such as whole-wheat bread and pasta 
  • Mushrooms 
  • Green peas 
  • Potatoes

Complication

A person can die within four to five years of being diagnosed.

Vitamin B12

Causes

Pure vegetarian diet

Symptoms and signs

  • Headaches resembling migraine attacks
  • Megaloblastic anaemia.
  • Memory loss
  • Mouth sores
  • Shortness of breath
  • The tingling sensation of the tongue
  • White spots on the skin

Treatment

  • Diet constituting animal product food, if possible
  • B12 supplement
  • Ayurvedic Medicines

Vitamin C

This vitamin deficiency is seen in developing countries. It leads to scurvy.

Symptoms and signs

  • Bleeding gums
  • Delayed wound healing
  • Increased susceptibility to infections
  • Spots on skin

Treatment

Vitamin C can be obtained by eating fruits like oranges, lemon, amla, lime, and grapefruit.

Vitamin D

Causes

  • Inadequate intake of calcium
  • Inadequate sunlight exposure

Symptoms and signs

  • Impaired bone formation
  • Bone softening diseases like osteomalacia
  • Osteoporosis in women

Treatment

  • Diet high in calcium, like milk, yoghurt, Sardine, Canned Salmon, Beans and Lentils, Almonds, Whey Protein, and Leafy Green vegetables.
  • Ayurvedic medicines

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