Kidney stones (renal calculi) are hard, crystalline mineral material formed within the kidney or urinary tract.
- Stones in kidneys—Nephrolithiasis
- Stones in urinary tract—Urolithiasis
- Stones in ureters–Ureterolithiasis
- Hyper excretion of relatively insoluble urinary constituents
- Uric acid
- Magnesium trisilicate
- Physiological changes in urine
- Urinary pH
- Colloid content
- Decreased concentration of crystalloids
- Urinary magnesium/calcium ratio.
- Altered urinary crystalloids and colloids
- Increase in the crystalloid level
- Fall in the colloid level
- Loss of solvent action of colloids
- Loss of adhesive property of colloids
- Decreased urinary output of citrate
- Nidus of stone formation
- Prolonged immobilization
- Urinary infection
- Urinary stasis
- Vitamin A deficiency
- Calcium stones
Calcium can combine with other substances, such as oxalate, phosphate, or carbonate to form the stone
- Cystine stones
This disorder runs in families and affects both men and women.
- Struvite stones
Common in women with UTI. These stones can grow very large and block the kidney, ureter, or bladder.
- Uric acid stones
They occur with gout or chemotherapy
Symptoms And Signs–
- Severe and sudden
- Felt in the belly area or side of the back
- Move to groin or testicles
- Fixed(ureteric colic/referred pain)
- Abdominal distension
- Diminished peristalsis
- Muscle rigidity over the kidney
- Swelling in the flank
- Tenderness (renal angle posteriorly)
- Blood examination
- Straight X-ray
- Excretory urogram
- Computed tomography
- Renal Scan
- Stone Analysis
Kidney stones that are small enough usually pass on their own
Drink at least 6 – 8 glasses of water per day to produce a large amount of urine. Some people might need to get fluids through vein (intravenous).
- Ayurvedic Medicines provide quick and complete cure.
- Lithotripsy (shock wave lithotripsy)
- Endoscopic treatment
- Percutaneous removal (PCNL)
- Decrease or loss of function in the affected kidney
- Kidney damage
- Acute unilateral obstructive uropathy
- Recurrence of stones
- Urinary tract infection
- Drink more water (8 to 10 glasses per day).
- Dietary changes –Avoid calculi forming foods, such as those high in purines, calcium.