Pneumonia

Pneumonia refers to a syndrome caused by acute infection involving the lung parenchyma or interstitium usually due to bacteria (virus,parasite,fungi can also be the cause).When non-infectious agents (chemicals,radiation) causes pneumonia,the term pneumonitis is used.

Causes—

Bacteria

  • Lobar pneumonia (streptococcus)
  • Broncho-pneumonia (hemophilus influenza)
  • Legionnaires’ disease (legionella pneumophilia)
  • Staphylococcus aureus
  • Mycoplasma pneumonia (walking pneumonia)
  • Branhamella catarrhalis
  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis
  • Klebsiella pneumonia

Viral

  • Adenovirus
  • Coxsackievirus
  • Chickenpox
  • Measles
  • Cytomegalovirus
  • Psittacosis-ornithosis group
  • Respiratory syncytial virus(young children)

  • Influenza
  • Varicella
  • Herpes zoster
  • Lymphocytic choriomeningitis

Rickettsial

Coxiella burneti (Q fever)

Steven Johnson syndrome

Protozoal

Entamoeba histolytica

Yeast and fungi

  • Actinomycosis
  • Aspergillosis
  • Nocardiosis
  • blastomycosis
  • Histoplasmosis

Chemical pneumonia
(aspiration of vomit)

Dysphagic pneumonia

  • Pharyngeal diverticulum
  • Achalasia cardia
  • Hiatus hernia

Lipoid pneumonia

  • Kerosene
  • Paraffin
  • petroleum

Toxic gases and smoke

Nosocomial pneumonia
(hospital acquired)

Radiation pneumonia

Smoking

Alcoholism

People with chronic health problems ( lung disease, heart disease, kidney disorders, sickle cell anemia or diabetes) are more prone to develop pneumonia due to weakened immunity.

Symptoms And Signs

  • Confusion(in elderly)
  • Cough (greenish, yellow ,bloody mucus)
  • Excessive sweating and clammy skin
  • Exertional dysponea
  • Fatigue
  • Fever( mild or high)
  • Headache
  • Loss of appetite
  • Shaking chills
  • Sharp or stabbing chest pain that gets worse with inspiration/cough

Investigations—

  • X-ray- chest
  • Sputum gram stain, culture
  • Blood test (Full blood count, Culture, LFT, Urea, electrolytes)
  • Bronchoscopy
  • Arterial blood gases
  • CT scan -chest
  • Pleural fluid culture

Treatment—-

Treatment depends on the severity of symptoms

  • Bed rest
  • Plenty of fluids
  • Breathing exercises
  • Balanced diet
  • Ayurvedic Medicines

Complications—-

  • Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)
  • Empyema
  • Hyponatremia
  • Lung abscess ( rare)
  • Pleural effusion
  • Respiratory failure
  • Sepsis

Prevention—-

  • Wash hands frequently-
  1. after blowing nose
  2. going to the bathroom
  3. diapering
  4. before eating or preparing foods.
  • Don’t smoke.
  • Pneumonococcal vaccine
  • Regular exercise
  • Adequate sleep

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