Pneumonia refers to a syndrome caused by an acute infection involving the lung parenchyma or interstitium usually due to bacteria (viruses, parasites, and fungi can also be the cause). When non-infectious agents (chemicals, radiation) cause pneumonia, the term pneumonitis is used.

Causes of Pneumonia


  • Lobar pneumonia (streptococcus)
  • Broncho-pneumonia (Haemophilus influenza)
  • Legionnaires’ disease (legionella pneumophilia)
  • Staphylococcus aureus
  • Mycoplasma pneumonia (walking pneumonia)
  • Branhamella catarrhalis
  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis
  • Klebsiella pneumonia


  • Adenovirus
  • Coxsackievirus
  • Chickenpox
  • Measles
  • Cytomegalovirus
  • Psittacosis-ornithosis group
  • Respiratory syncytial virus(young children)
  • Influenza
  • Varicella
  • Herpes zoster
  • Lymphocytic choriomeningitis


Coxiella burneti (Q fever)

Steven Johnson syndrome


Entamoeba histolytica

Yeast and fungi

  • Actinomycosis
  • Aspergillosis
  • Nocardiosis
  • blastomycosis
  • Histoplasmosis

Chemical pneumonia

(aspiration of vomit)

Dysphagia pneumonia

  • Pharyngeal diverticulum
  • Achalasia cardia
  • Hiatus hernia

Lipoid pneumonia

  • Kerosene
  • Paraffin
  • petroleum

Toxic gases and smoke

Nosocomial pneumonia

Radiation pneumonia



People with chronic health problems ( lung disease, heart disease, kidney disorders, sickle cell anaemia or diabetes) are more prone to develop pneumonia due to weakened immunity.

Symptoms and Signs

  • Confusion(in elderly)
  • Cough (greenish, yellow, bloody mucus)
  • Excessive sweating and clammy skin
  • Exertional dyspnea
  • Fatigue
  • Fever( mild or high)
  • Headache
  • Loss of appetite
  • Shaking chills
  • Sharp or stabbing chest pain that gets worse with inspiration/cough


  • X-ray- chest
  • Sputum gram stain, culture
  • Blood test (Full blood count, Culture, LFT, Urea, electrolytes)
  • Bronchoscopy
  • Arterial blood gases
  • CT scan -chest
  • Pleural fluid culture


Treatment depends on the severity of the symptoms

  • Bed rest
  • Plenty of fluids
  • Breathing exercises
  • Balanced diet
  • Ayurvedic Medicines
  • Yoga



  • Wash hands frequently-
  1. after blowing nose
  2. going to the washroom
  3. diapering
  4. before eating or preparing foods.
  • Don’t smoke.
  • Pneumococcal vaccine
  • Regular exercise
  • Adequate sleep

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