Parkinson’s Disease

Parkinson’s disease is a disorder of the brain that leads to shaking and difficult movement, and in-coordination. Parkinson’s disease most often develops after age 50. It is one of the most common nervous system disorders of the elderly.

Causes—

  • Impaired release of dopamine
  1. Idiopathic
  2. Drugs depleting dopamines stores(reserpine,tetrabenazine)
  3. Toxins damaging dopaminergic neurons
  4. Viral infections (Encephalitis lethargica, Japanese B encephalitis)
  5. Trauma (Repeated head injuries )
  • Blockade of striatal dopamine receptors
  1. Phenothiazines
  2. Butyrophenones
  • Damage to striatal neurons
  1. Viral infection
  2. Multi system atrophy
  • Miscellaneous
  1. Wilson’s disease
  2. Huntington’s disease
  3. Cerebral tumour
  4. Neurosyphilis

Symptoms And Signs—

General—

  • Expressionless face(mask like appearance)
  • Greasy skin
  • Soft,rapid, indistinct speech
  • Flexed posture

Specific–

  • Gait
  1. Slow to start walking
  2. Shortened stride
  3. Rapid small steps,tendency to run
  4. Reduced arm swinging
  5. Impaired balance on turning
  • Tremors-

Resting

  1. Usually first in fingers/thumb
  2. Coarse, complex movements, flexion/extension of fingers
  3. Abduction/adduction of thumb
  4. Supination/pronation of forearm
  5. May affect arms, legs, feet, jaw, tongue
  6. Intermittent, resting, on distracted
  7. Diminishes on action

    Postural

  1. Less obvious, faster, finer amplitude
  2. Present on action or posture, persists with movement
  • Rigidity-

Limbs

  1. Cogwheel type, mostly upper limbs, phasic element to stiffness in all directions of movements
  2. Plastic(lead pipe)type, mostly legs and trunk

Trunk

Flexed, stooped posture

  • Hypokinesis
  1. Slowness initiating movements
  2. Impaired fine movements, specially fingers(micrographic
  3. Poor precision of repetitive movements
  • Psychic-
  1. Anxiety
  2. confusion
  3. constipation
  4. dementia
  5. difficulty swallowing
  6. excessive salivation
  7. diminished sense of smell
  8. increased sweating
  9. Insecurity
  10. male erectile dysfunction
  11. stress
  12. urinary frequency/urgency

Investigations–

  •  Serological tests for syphilis
  • SPECT (single photon emission computed tomography) scan
  • MRI scan

Treatment—

  • Ayurvedic Medicines(Cap Kushagra, Smritisagar ras, Cap Safojas)
  • Lifestyle changes-
  1. Good nutrition
  2. Suitable exercise
  3. Regular rest periods and avoiding stress
  4. Physical therapy, speech therapy, and occupational therapy
  5. Railings or banisters placed in commonly used areas of the house
  6. Special eating utensils
  • Surgery

Complications–

  • Disability (differs from person to person)
  • Injuries from falls
  • Pneumonia (from aspirating saliva)

3 thoughts on “Parkinson’s Disease”

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  3. I am a 51 year old female that just found out I have Motor Neuron Disease Parkinson’s about a year and half, but I have been having signs of it for years, tremors, depression, body weakness. ECT. I honestly don’t think my doctor was reading the signs because of my gender and age. A few years ago I had my shoulder lock up on me and I was sent to a P.T since x-rays didn’t show any physical damage. My shaking was getting worse and I began falling. Only when my speech became so bad that it brought concern to my dentist was Parkinson’s even considered. He phoned my doctor with his concerns about my shaking and balance problems. By this time I was forgoing shots in the back of my neck for back and neck pain to which once again I was sent to a P.T (although x-rays showed no damage) I was told I had a few spurs which were most likely causing the pain. Here I was feeling like my whole body was falling apart and doctor could not find anything wrong, maybe in was all in my head? My doctor even seemed annoyed with me and things just kept progressing and I just kept it to myself, why bother going through testing and them finding nothing? Well, it was after my second P.T called my doctor about the weakness in my legs and arms, by this time I have developed a gait in my walk and I fell more frequently. Only then did my doctor send me to a specialist and it was found that I had Parkinson’s, and that I have had it for awhile. I think because I was a woman that my signs and symptoms weren’t taken seriously and therefor left untreated for so long,I was taking medicines.I found that none of the current medications worked effective for me.I got tired of using those medication so I decided to apply natural herbs. There has been huge progression ever since I start the treatment plan.

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