Multiple Sclerosis

Multiple Sclerosis is an inflammatory disease of the Central Nervous System (brain and spinal cord). It is a demyelinating disease.

CAUSES

  • Environmental factor

Low prevalence in tropics and high prevalence in the temperate zones of both northern and southern hemispheres. Migration to high prevalence areas before the age of 15 is a risk factor for development of the disease.

  • Genetic factor

Risk is high in first relatives and monozygotic twins

  • Immunological factor

Increased levels of activated T lymphocytes in the CSF and increased immunoglobulin synthesis within CNS.

Classification-

Relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS)

  • Recurrent attacks
  • Neurologic deficits appear in different parts of the nervous system
  • Resolve completely or almost completely over a short period of time

Secondary progressive MS (SPMS)

  • Continued progression over years
  • Increasing disability

Primary progressive MS (PPMS)

Function declines steadily without relapses

Progressive-relapsing MS (PRMS)

Occasional relapses superimposed on progressive disease

Symptoms And Signs—

  • Constipation and stool leakage
  • Decreased attention span
  • Depression               
  • Difficulty beginning to urinate
  • Difficulty in reasoning
  • Dizziness
  • Double vision
  • Erectile problems    
  • Facial pain
  • Fatigue
  • Hearing loss
  • Incontinence

  • Loss of balance
  •  Memory loss
  • Muscle spasms
  • Slurred speech
  • Strong urge to urinate
  • Tingling, crawling, or burning feeling in the arms and legs
  • Uncontrollable rapid eye movements
  • Vision loss (usually affects one eye at a time)
  • Weakness/tremor in one or more arms or legs

Investigations—

  • Neurological exam
  • Eye examination
  • Lumbar puncture
  • MRI scan of the brain and spine
  • Nerve function study

Treatment—-

  1. Ayurvedic Medicines
  2. Panchkarma 
  3. General measures
  • Physiotherapy
  • Speech therapy
  • Occupational therapy
  • Support groups

  • Assistive devices, such as wheelchairs, bed lifts, shower chairs, walkers, and wall bars
  • A planned exercise program
  • Nutritious diet, enough rest and relaxation
  • Avoiding fatigue, stress, temperature extremes, and illness

Complication–

  • Spasticity
  • Ataxia
  • Dysaesthesia
  • Failure to store urine
  • Failure to empty bladder
  • Osteoporosis
  • Pressure sores

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