Mental Disorders

Mental disorders are generally characterized by some combination of abnormal thoughts, emotions, behaviour and relationships with others. Most of these disorders can be successfully treated . Mental illness is not the result of personal weakness or a character defect and recovery from a mental illness is not simply a matter of will and self-discipline.

Classification

  • Organic
    1. Acute (delirium)
    2. Chronic (dementia)
  • Substance misuse
  • Schizophrenia and delusional disorders
  • Affective(mood) disorders
    1. Depression 
    2. Mania
    3. Recurrent affective disoders
  • Neurotic,stress-related and Somatoform disorder
    1. Anxiety disorders 
    2. Obsessive compulsive disorder 
    3. Acute stress disorder
    4. Post-traumatic stress disorder
    5. Adjustment disorder
    6. Dissociative (conversion disorder)
    7. Somatoform disorder
    8. Neurasthenia
  • Behavioural syndromes associated with physiological disturbance
    1. Eating disorder 
    2. Sleep disorder
    3. Sexual dysfunction 
    4. Puerperal mental disorders
  • Personality disorders

Causes—-

  • Heredity (genetics)

Hereditary means that one is more likely to get the condition than if one have an affected family member.

  • Biology

Abnormal balance of neurotransmitters (special chemicals in the brain).

  • Psychological trauma like-
  1. Severe emotional, physical or sexual abuse
  2. Significant early loss( a parent)
  3. Childhood neglect
  • Environmental stressors
  1. Divorce/dysfunctional family life
  2. Changing jobs or schools
  3. Substance abuse

Treatment—-

As many as 8 in 10 people suffering from a mental illness can effectively return to their normal activities if they receive appropriate treatment.

  • Medication
  • Psychotherapy
  • Group therapy
  • Systemic desensitization
  • Flooding
  • Operant conditioning
  • Modelling
  • Day treatment or partial hospital treatment
  • Cognitive-behavior therapy

  •  Behavior modification
  • Alternative therapies
  1. Water therapy
  2. Massage
  3. Biofeedback
  • Creative therapies
  1. Art therapy
  2. Music therapy
  3. Play therapy
  • Hypnotherapy
  • Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)
  • Vagal nerve stimulation (VNS)

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