Meningitis

Meningitis is an infection of the fluid of spinal cord and the fluid that surrounds the brain.

Types—

  • Viral
  • Bacterial

Viral meningitis

Causes—

  • Enterovirus
  • Coxsackie virus
  • Herpes virus
  • Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus(LCMV)

Transmission by—

Direct contact with respiratory secretions (saliva, sputum, nasal mucous)

Shaking hands with an infected person

Prevention—

Practice general hygiene

Bacterial meningitis

Causes-

  • Neisseria meningitides
  • Streptococcus pneumonia
  • Haemophilus influenza serotype b (Hib)disease

Symptoms And Signs–

  • Headache

  • Stiff neck
  • Fever and chills
  • Vomiting
  • Photophobia
  • Confusion
  • Seizures
  • Recent URTI                
  • Localized weakness
  • loss of sensation (especially in the face)
  • Joint swelling
  • Bruises like rash

Investigations—

  • Lumbar puncture (culture of CSF)

  • Blood culture
  • Chest x-ray
  • CT scan of the head

Treatment–

  • Ayurvedic Medicines
  • Keep the person in a darkened, quiet area.
  • If the person is vomiting, lay the person on one side to prevent him or her from inhaling vomit.

Complications–

  • Brain damage
  • Subdural effusion
  • Deafness
  • Hydrocephalus

Prevention

  • Haemophilus vaccine –Hib disease 
  • The pneumococcal conjugate vaccine -Pneumococcal meningitis.
  • Preventive antibiotics– Meningococcal meningitis

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