Liver Diseases

Liver disease is a term for a collection of conditions, diseases, and infections that affect the cells, tissues, structures, or functions of the liver.

  1. Liver cirrhosis implies irreversible scarring of the liver which can be a potentially life-threatening. In an advanced stage, 80-90% liver may be damaged and replaced with scar tissue.
  2. Ascites is the accumulation of fluid within the peritoneal cavity.
  3. The common types of gallstones are cholesterol Stones and Pigment Stones.

Causes–

General

  • Abnormal blood flow to liver( Budd Chiari syndrome, Congestive heart failure)
  • Accumulation of Cholesterol/triglycerides(steatosis)
  • Alcohol abuse
  • Chemicals (anabolic steroids and vinyl chloride )and minerals
  • Eating unidentified mushrooms
  • Drugs (acetaminophen, statins, niacin, nitrofurantoin, amoxicillin, clavulanic acid, tetracycline, isoniazid, oral contraceptives, methotrexate, disulfiram, vitamin A)
  • Infiltration by abnormal cells
  • Obstruction of bile flow(cholestasis, Primary biliary cirrhosis and primary sclerosing cholangitis)
  • Infections
  1. Viral (Hepatitis, Toxoplasmosis, Epstein Barr virus, Adenovirus fever, Cytomegalovirus)
  2. Non-viral (Rocky mountain spotted)
  • Fatty liver disease
  • Hereditary (Hemochromatosis, Wilson’s Disease)
  • Gilbert’s Disease
  • Cancers (hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma
  • Metastatic cancer (begin in the lung, breast, large intestine, stomach, and pancreas, Leukemia and Hodgkin’s lymphoma )
  • Diseases(portal hypertension ,hepatic encephalopathy  )

Symptoms And Signs–

General

  • Abdominal pain in the upper right part of the stomach
  • Dark urine
  • Depression
  • Diarrhea
  • Fatigue
  • Generalized itching
  • Hypoglycemia
  • Jaundice
  • Light-colored stools
  • Loss of appetite
  • Loss of sex drive
  • Low grade fever
  • Malaise,
  • Muscle aches and pains
  • Nausea
  • Unusual weight loss or weight gain
  • Varicose veins
  • Vomiting

Investigations—

Blood tests

  • Serum transaminase
  • AST(Aspertate aminoitransferase)
  • ALT (Alanine transferase)
  • Biliary enzymes
  • GGT(Glutamyl transpeptidase)
  • ALP(Alkaline phosphatase)
  • Serum protein (albumin, globulin, Alpha-trypsin, ferritin, Alpha fetoprotein)
  • Total serum bilirubin
  • Full blood count
  • Prothrombin time
  • Serum Lipase
  • BUN
  • Creatinine
  • Ammonia

CT scan

MRI

Ultrasound

Liver Biopsy

Treatment—–

General

  • Bed rest
  • Drink extra fluids to prevent dehydration
  • Ayurvedic Medicines(Tab Tinifat, Arogyavardhini vati, Kumariasav, Punarnava Mandoor, Kalmeghadi churna)

Complications—-

General

  • Decreased Cognitive Function
  • Liver Cancer
  • Liver Failure
  • Malnutrition and Weight Loss

Prevention—-

  • Avoid alcohol and smoking
  • Avoid drinking or using tap water when travelling abroad.
  • Avoid illegal drug use( sharing injection equipment)
  • Avoid the sharing of personal hygiene items( razors or nail clippers, towels, soaps)
  • Avoid toxic substances
  • Eat a balanced diet ,get plenty of physical activity and rest
  • Hepatitis A and hepatitis B can be prevented with vaccines.
  • Practice good hygiene( washing hands after using washroom or changing diapers)
  • Practice safest sex
  • Use only prescribed medicines, specially vitamins and antibiotics.

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