Liver Diseases

Liver disease is a term for a collection of conditions, diseases, and infections that affect the cells, tissues, structures, or functions of the liver.


  • Abnormal blood flow to the liver( Budd Chiari syndrome, Congestive heart failure)
  • Accumulation of Cholesterol/triglycerides(steatosis)
  • Alcohol abuse
  • Chemicals (anabolic steroids and vinyl chloride )and minerals
  • Eating unidentified mushrooms
  • Drugs (acetaminophen, statins, niacin, nitrofurantoin, amoxicillin, clavulanic acid, tetracycline, isoniazid, oral contraceptives, methotrexate, disulfiram, and vitamin A, to name a few)
  • Infiltration by abnormal cells
  • Obstruction of bile flow(cholestasis, Primary biliary cirrhosis and primary sclerosing cholangitis)
  • Infections — These could be viral (Hepatitis, Toxoplasmosis, Epstein Barr virus, Adenovirus fever, Cytomegalovirus) or non-viral (Rocky mountain spotted)
  • Fatty liver disease
  • Hereditary (Hemochromatosis, Wilson’s Disease)
  • Gilbert’s Disease
  • Cancers (hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma
  • Metastatic cancer (begin in the lung, breast, large intestine, stomach, and pancreas, Leukemia and Hodgkin’s lymphoma )
  • Diseases(portal hypertension, hepatic encephalopathy  )

Symptoms and signs of liver diseases

  • Abdominal pain in the upper right part of the stomach
  • Dark urine
  • Depression
  • Diarrhoea
  • Fatigue
  • Generalized itching
  • Hypoglycemia
  • Jaundice
  • Light-coloured stools
  • Loss of appetite
  • Loss of sex drive
  • Low-grade fever
  • Malaise,
  • Muscle aches and pains
  • Nausea
  • Unusual weight loss or weight gain
  • Varicose veins
  • Vomiting


  • Blood tests
  1. Serum transaminase
  2. AST(Aspertate aminoitransferase)
  3. ALT (Alanine transferase)
  4. Biliary enzymes
  5. GGT(Glutamyl transpeptidase)
  6. ALP(Alkaline phosphatase)
  7. Serum protein (albumin, globulin, Alpha-trypsin, ferritin, Alpha-fetoprotein)
  8. Total serum bilirubin
  9. Full blood count
  10. Prothrombin time
  11. Serum Lipase
  12. BUN
  13. Creatinine
  14. Ammonia
  • CT scan
  • MRI
  • Ultrasound
  • Liver Biopsy


  • Bed rest
  • Drink extra fluids to prevent dehydration
  • Ayurvedic Medicines are very effective in liver diseases. There are a lot of preparations using herbs and metals. All work equally well in almost all types of liver diseases.


  • Decreased Cognitive Function
  • Liver Cancer
  • Liver Failure
  • Malnutrition and Weight Loss


  • Avoid alcohol and smoking
  • Avoid drinking or using tap water when travelling abroad.
  • Avoid illegal drug use( sharing injection equipment)
  • Avoid the sharing of personal hygiene items( razors or nail clippers, towels, soaps)
  • Avoid toxic substances
  • Eat a balanced diet, get plenty of physical activity and rest
  • Hepatitis A and hepatitis B can be prevented with vaccines.
  • Practice good hygiene( washing hands after using the washroom or changing diapers)
  • Practice the safest sex
  • Use only prescribed medicines, especially vitamins and antibiotics.

Cirrhosis of liver


  • Alcohol dependence and alcoholism
  • Autoimmune hepatitis
  • Chronic hepatitis B or C
  • Congestive heart failure
  • Coronary artery disease
  • Cystic fibrosis
  • Diabetes
  • Exposure to certain toxins such as arsenic
  • Glycogen storage diseases
  • Hemochromatosis
  • Obesity
  • High triglyceride blood levels
  • Intestinal bypass surgery
  • Long-term treatment with corticosteroids
  • Secondary biliary cirrhosis
  • Wilson’s disease

Symptoms and signs

  • Abdominal swelling
  • Bleeding from gums
  • Blood in vomit/faeces
  • Difficulty breathing
  • Easy bruising
  • Oedema
  • Encephalopathy (Extreme sleepiness, difficulty awakening, coma)
  • Gynaecomastia
  • Haemorrhoids
  • Nosebleeds
  • Poor appetite
  • Scrotal swelling
  • Small red, spider-like blood vessels under the skin
  • Wasting
  • Weakness


Ayurvedic medicines are very effective in all liver diseases and are prescribed according to the Prakriti of a person and the extent of the disease.


  • Ascites
  • Oesophagal varices
  • Hepatic encephalopathy
  • Kidney failure
  • Permanent liver damage and loss of normal liver function
  • Portal hypertension



  • Cirrhosis 
  • Acute liver failure
  1. acute injury to liver cells
  2. adverse reactions to medications
  3. drug abuse
  • Budd-Chiari syndrome (blockage of the hepatic veins)
  • Metastatic Cancer
  • Heart failure
  • Nephrotic syndrome
  • Disorders of the pancreas
    1. Acute pancreatitis
    2. Chronic pancreatitis
    3. Pancreatic cancer
  • Direct irritation of the peritoneum
  • Diseases of the ovary like cancer or Meigs syndrome
  • Hypothyroidism

Symptoms And Signs


  1. no symptoms
  2. increased abdominal girth and size
  3. shortness of breath
  4. pleural effusions
  • Due to cirrhosis of the liver-
  1. leg swelling
  2. easy bruising
  3. enlargement of the breasts
  4. confusion
  • Due to heart failure
  1. shortness of breath
  2. oedema
  3. paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea
  • Due to cancer
  1. pain
  2. weight loss
  3. Fatigue
  4. Abdominal distention.
  • With spontaneous bacterial peritonitis
  1. Abdominal pain
  2. Fever.


  • Dietary salt restriction and medications assist the body in ridding itself of excess salt and fluid. 
  • Ayurvedic medicines
  • Liver Transplant


  • Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis
  • Hepatorenal syndrome

Gall Bladder Stones


Cholesterol Stones

  • Obesity(especially in women)
  • Pregnancy
  • Hormonal therapy,(especially estrogen)
  • Rapid loss of weight
  • High triglycerides(as in diabetes),bilirubin
  • Fewer bile salts
  • Crohn’s disease
  • Fasting
  • Anti-cholesterol drugs(increase cholesterol in bile)

Pigment Stones

  • Cirrhosis
  • Biliary tract infections(brown pigment stones)
  • Hereditary blood disorders (black pigment stones)
  • Residual bile in the gall bladder(due to poor muscle tone)

Symptoms And Signs

  • Pain
    • Steady gripping or gnawing severe pain in the upper right abdomen near the rib cage, radiating to the upper back.
    • Changing position, taking over-the-counter pain relievers, and passing gas does not relieve the pain
    • Pain typically occurs at the same time of day
  • Dark urine, lighter stools, or both
  • Fever, chills
  • Jaundice
  • Nausea or vomiting
  • Rapid heartbeat and abrupt blood pressure drop

Acute cholecystitis

  • Pain in the upper right abdomen is severe and constant
  • Pain lasts for days.
  • Pain frequently increases with inspiration
  • Pain may also radiate to the back or occur under the shoulder blades, behind the breast bone, or on the left side.
  • Fever and chills

Chronic Cholecystitis 

  • gas
  • nausea
  • abdominal discomfort after meals
  • Chronic diarrhoea (4 – 10 bowel movements every day for at least 3 months).


  • Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS)
  • Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP)
  • Cholescintigraphy (HIDA scan
  • Oral cholecystogram (OCG)
  • Intravenous cholangiogram (IVC)


  • Ayurvedic medicines relieve the pain and other symptoms in 1-2 days. It takes nearly 4-5 months to get rid of gall stones depending on the size, number and location of gall stones.
  • Surgical
  1.  Laparoscopic cholecystectomy.
  2. If gallstones are in the bile ducts, ERCP with endoscopic sphincterotomy is performed.


  • Pancreatitis
  • Gangrene
  • Perforation of the gallbladder

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