Kidney Diseases

A kidney disease is an illness or disorder that affects the functioning of kidneys with respect to filtration ,re-absorption and secretion.

Types—

Glomerular  Diseases

Classification–

    A.  Clinical

B. Clinico-pathological

  1. Non-Proliferative
  • Minimal change   nephropathy
  • Membranous nephropathy
  • Focal and segmental Glomerulosclerosis 

2. Proliferative

  • Diffuse mesangial proliferation with IgM deposition
  • Diffuse membrane proliferation with IgA deposition
  • Diffuse endothelial proliferative glomerulonephritis
  • Mesangiocapillary glomerulonephritis
  • Anti-GBM disease
  • Crescenteric glomerulonephritis

CAUSES—-

General

  1. Secondary and Systemic Disorder
  • Systemic lupus erythematosus
  • Diabetes
  • Goodpasture’s syndrome
  • Bronchiectasis

2. Anti-hypertensive medicines

  • Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors
  • Angiotensin receptor blockers

3. Hereditary

  • Alport Syndrome
  • Thin membrane basement disease
  • Familial clusters

4. Infection

    • Viral
      • Hepatitis B
      • HIV
      • Echovirus
      • Mumps
      • Varicella
      • Cytomegalovirus
    • Bacteria
      • Heamolytic streptococcus
      • Pneumococcus
      • Klebseilla
      • Gonococcus
      • Staphylo
      • Salmonella
      • Yersinia
      • Syphilis
      • Leprosy
      • Tuberculosis
  • Others ( Malaria, Filariasis, Mycoplasma, Schistosomiasis)

5. Gold

Symptoms And Signs–

General

  1. Proteinuria
  2. Hematuria
  3. Reduced glomerular filtration rate
  4. Hypoproteinemia
  5. Edema( hands and ankles- at the end of the day; around the eyes –early morning)

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