Kala azar

Also called Leishmaniasis, dum dum fever or white leprosy.

Causative agent–

 Leishmania donovani. Leishmaniasis is described as a poverty-related disease by the WHO. 

Transmission—

 By sandfly (Phlebotomus)

Symptoms And Signs–

  • Enlarged spleen and liver
  • High fever.

Classification—

  • Cutaneous leishmaniasis
  • Visceral leishmaniasis
  • Mucosal leishmaniasis

Cutaneous leishmaniasis

Causative agent–

 Infection of macrophages in skin by L. mexicana

Symptoms And Signs–

  • Papule at the site of bite
  • Lymphaden­opathy
  • Change of papule to nodule and ulcer­ative lesion with central depression and raised bor­der
  • Satellite lesions
  •  Secondary bacterial infection

Treatment —

Medicines

Visceral Leishmaniasis 

Causative agent–

Infection of macrophages in reticuloendothelial system by L.donovani.

Symptoms And Signs—

  • Anaemia
  • Fever
  • Hepatomegaly
  • Hyper gamma-globulinaemia
  • Hypoalbuminemia
  • Leukopenia
  • Lym­phocytosis
  • Monocytosis,
  • Patients appear grey
  • Periph­eral lymphadenopathy
  • Splenomegaly(big, soft and non-tender)
  • Thrombocytopenia

Investigations—-

  • Leishmanin or Montenegro test
  • Tissue aspirates,
  • Biopsy specimen of spleen, liver, bone­marrow or lymph node.

Treatment–

Medicines

Mucosal Leishmaniasis

Causative agent–

Infection of nasopharyngeal mucosa by L. amazonensis

Symptoms And Signs—

  • Nasopharyngeal mucosa is quite dis­figuring.
  • Persistent nasal polyps

Treatment

Medicines

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