The flu is a contagious infection of the nose, throat, and lungs caused by the influenza virus.


  •  Influenza A

 Most Severe. Outbreak every 2-3 years  

  • Influenza B

Less severe. Affects children               

  • Influenza C


Causes of influenza

  • Age

Seasonal changes tend to target young children and people over 65.

  • Occupation

Health care workers and child care personnel

  • Congested living areas
  • Weak immune system due to –
  1. Cancer treatments
  2. Anti-rejection drugs
  3. Corticosteroids
  5. Chronic illnesses
  6. Asthma
  7. Diabetes
  8. Heart problems
  • Pregnancy( second and third trimesters)
  • Breathing in droplets from coughs or sneezes
  • Touching a surface (a faucet handle or phone) loaded with a virus and then transferring them to the eyes, nose or mouth.

Symptoms and signs

  • Abrupt onset
  • Body aches
  • Chills
  • Dizziness
  • Dry, hacking cough
  • Fever 102 -106 °F( lasting 1-last 5 days)
  • Flushed face
  • Headache
  • Lack of energy
  • Loss of appetite
  • Nasal discharge
  • Nausea
  • Sneezing
  • Sore throat
  • Stuffy, congested nose
  • Sweating
  • Vomiting
  • Worsening of underlying illness( asthma or heart failure)


  • Rest

Until the flu is fully resolved, especially if the illness has been severe.

  • Fluids

Drink enough fluids so as not to become dehydrated.

  • Medicines


  • Pneumonia
  • Bronchitis
  • Sinus infections
  • Ear infections


  • Flu vaccination for all over the age of 6 months.
  • Thorough and frequent hand washing. Scrub your hands vigorously for at least 15 seconds. Or use alcohol-based hand sanitisers.
  • Cover mouth and nose while sneezing/coughing
  • Avoid crowds.

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