Infertility means the inability to conceive. It is different from sterility (absolute inability to conceive).
If a couple fails to achieve pregnancy after at least one year of “unprotected” and “regular intercourse”, it is an indication to investigate the couple.
- Unprotected—–i.e. without using any means that prevents conception.
- Regular Intercourse—i.e. timing should be such so that the ovulation period is not missed every month.
- Primary infertility-Where conception has never occurred.
- Secondary infertility-When conception does not occur in spite of having produced a child or having an undoubted abortion.
Causes of infertility
- Total Volume = 3-5 ml
- Sperm Count = 60-120 million per ml
- Motility = 80-90%
- Morphology = 80% or more normal
- Liquification = 30 minutes
- pH = 7.2-7.8
- Fructose = 200-300 mg%
- Pus Cells = absent
Any deviation from the above parameters is considered abnormal.
- Frohlich’s syndrome
- Kleinfelter syndrome with 47 XXY chromosomes
Raised scrotal temperature
- Working in blast furnaces
- Wearing tight scrotal support
- Varicocele (confirmed by Doppler study)
- Ectopic testes(testes fail to descend to the scrotum, they are exposed to high temperature of abdominal cavity leading to less/no sperm genesis)
- Accidental trauma(blow on testicles)resulting in haematoma formation
- Operative trauma(hernia, hydrocele, varicocele)
- Mumps, venereal diseases, tuberculosis
- Prolonged exposure to irradiation
5. Excessive smoking, alcohol consumption
6. Presence of antibodies causes agglutination of spermatozoa
Obstruction in the passage
This means bilateral obstruction causes azoospermia.
- Congenital lesions of the penile urethra(hypospadias)
- Absence or deformed vas deferens
- Damaged epididymis due to trauma, inflammatory diseases(gonorrhoea or tuberculosis)
- Occlusion of vas deferens due to surgery as in herniorrhaphy and bilateral vasectomy.
8. Chronic inflammatory disease of prostate and seminal vesicle.
- maldeveloped vagina( non- canalization or occlusion by a septum
- non-developed vagina
- fetal type vagina
- congenital defects in fallopian tubes and stenosis
- rigid hymen
- elongated conical cervix with a pinhole
- acute anteflexion & retroflexion of uterus
- Puerperal Infections
- Following Septic Abortions
- Tuberculosis Of Tubes
- Retroversion with prolapsed ovaries
- Inflamed appendages
- Pelvic endometriosis
- Urethral caruncle
- Antispermal antibodies in cervical mucous
- Genital tract infection
- Pathological amenorrhea (ovarian deficiency)
- Endocrine disorders
- Pelvic inflammatory disease
- Pelvic endometriosis
- Chronic diseases
- Hypothalamic and pituitary dysfunction
- Chronic inflammations of the cervix
- Asherman’s syndrome
- Tuberculosis of the uterus
- Corpus luteal defect
Ayurvedic medicines cure infertility both in males and females. Treatment is cause based. As the cause so the treatment.
- Surgical correction of varicocele and undescended testes improves semen quality. vaso-vasal anastomosis for obstructed vas.
- Artificial insemination
(IUI, IUTPI ,ICI, ITI, IVI)
- Tubal microsurgery in case of tubal blockage
- IVF, ET in case of irreparably damaged tubes.