Infertility means inability to conceive. It is different from sterility (absolute inability to conceive).
If a couple fails to achieve pregnancy after at least one year of “unprotected” and “regular intercourse”, it is an indication to investigate the couple.
- Unprotected-—-i.e. without using any means that prevents conception.
- Regular Intercourse––i.e. timing should be such so that ovulation period is not missed every month.
Primary infertility-Where conception has never occurred.
Secondary infertility-When conception does not occur in spite of having produced a child or having an undoubted abortion.
- Semen Analysis
- Total Volume = 3-5 ml
- Sperm Count = 60-120 million per ml
- Motility = 80-90%
- Morphology = 80% or more normal
- Liquification = 30 minutes
- pH = 7.2-7.8
- Fructose = 200-300 mg%
- Pus Cells = absent
Any deviation from the above parameters is considered abnormal.
2. Pituitary failure
- Frohlich’s syndrome
- Kleinfelter syndrome with 47 XXY chromosomes
3. Raised scrotal temperature
- working in blast furnaces
- wearing tight scrotal support
- varicocele (confirmed by Doppler study)
- Ectopic testes(testes fail to descend to scrotum ,they are exposed to high temperature of abdominal cavity leading to less/no sperm genesis)
4. Testicular damage
- accidental trauma(blow on testicles)resulting in haematoma formation
- operative trauma(hernia, hydrocele, varicocele)
- Mumps, veneral diseases ,tuberculosis
- prolonged exposure to irradiation
5. Excessive smoking, alcohol consumption
6. Presence of antibodies causes agglutination of spermatozoa
7. Obstruction in passage (Bilateral obstruction causes azoospermia)
- Congenital lesions of penile urethera(hypospadias)
- Absence or deformed vas deferens
- Damaged epididymis due to trauma, inflammatory diseases(gonorrhea or tuberculosis)
- Occlusion of vas deferens due to surgery as in herniorrhaphy and bilateral vasectomy.
8. Chronic inflammatory disease of prostrate and seminal vesicle.
- Congenital defects
- maldeveloped vagina( non- canalization or occlusion by a septum
- non developed vagina
- fetal type vagina
- congenital defects in fallopian tubes and stenosis
- rigid hymen
- elongated conical cervix with a pinhole
- acute anteflexion & retroflexion of uterus
- Puerperal Infections
- Following Septic Abortions
- Tuberculosis Of Tubes
3. Chronic inflammations of cervix
4. Asherman’s syndrome
5. Tuberculosis of uterus
6. Corpus luteal defect
- Retroversion with prolapsed ovaries
- Inflamed appendages
- Pelvic endometriosis
- Urethral caruncle
9. Antispermal antibodies in cervical mucous
10. Genital tract infection
11. Pathological amenorrhea (ovarian deficiency)
12. Endocrine disorders
13. Pelvic inflammatory disease
14. Pelvic endometriosis
15. Chronic diseases
17. Hypothalamic and pituitary dysfunction
Ayurvedic medicines cures infertility both in male and females.Treatment is cause based. As the cause so the treatment.
- Surgical correction of varicocele and undescended testes improves semen quality. vaso-vasal anastomosis for obstructed vas.
- Artificial insemination
(IUI, IUTPI ,ICI, ITI, IVI)
- Tubal microsurgery in case of tubal blockage
- IVF, ET in case of irreparable damaged tube.