Hypoglycemia

Hypoglycemia occurs if blood glucose levels fall below normal. It is generally defined as a blood sugar below 70 mg/dL, although this level may not necessarily cause symptoms in all patients.

Causes- 

  • Acute hepatic coma
  • Addison’s disease
  • Alcohol intake
  • Cirrhosis
  • Excess exercise

  • Fructose intolerance
  • Gastroenteritis
  • Hypopituitarism
  • Insufficient intake of food
  • Insulinomas
  • Long-term diabetes
  • Partial gastrectomy
  • Respiratory illnesses
  • Retroperitoneal fibrosarcoma
  • Tight blood sugar control

Hypoglycemia unawareness

This is a condition in which people become accustomed to hypoglycemic symptoms. They may no longer notice the signs of hypoglycemia until they become more severe. In such cases, hypoglycemia appears suddenly, without warning, and can escalate to a severe level. Even a single recent episode of hypoglycemia may make it more difficult to detect the next episode.

Symptoms And Signs—

A. Mild 

  • hunger
  • rapid heartbeat
  • sweating
  • trembling

B. Moderate—

  • headache
  • hunger
  • nervousness
  • palpitations
  • sweating
  • tremors
  • weakness

 C. Severe

  • combativeness
  • confusion
  • disorientation
  • weakness
  • coma
  • seizure
  • death

 Investigations—

  1. Blood glucose monitoring
  2. Fish insulin suppression test
  3. Coeliac axis angiography

Treatment—

  1. Acute attack—

       Administration of rapidly absorbable carbohydrates Orange juice, candy, corn syrup

  1. Conservative—

       Diet consisting slowly absorbable carbohydrates (bread, fruits, vegetables),proteins, fat.

3. Surgery—

  • Removal of islet cell tumour
  • Partial resection of pancreas

 

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