Hepatitis means inflammation of the liver.


  • Hepatitis A (incubation period of about 15-45 days)
  • Hepatitis B(incubation period of 45-160 days)
  • Hepatitis C (incubation period from 2 weeks to 6 months.)



  • Drugs
  • Alcohol
  • Chemicals
  • Autoimmune diseases.
  • Mononucleosis
  • Cytomegalovirus


Hepatitis A

  • Hepatitis A virus
  • Poor sanitation and sewage disposal
  • Eating food/liquid contaminated with faeces of someone with hepatitis A.

Hepatitis B

  • Hepatitis B virus may be present in blood, saliva, semen, vaginal fluid
  • Passed from person to person through unprotected sex or sharing needles

Hepatitis C

  • Hepatitis C virus may be present in blood, saliva or semen or the vaginal fluid of an infected person
  • Transmitted through blood-to-blood contact.
  • Sharing contaminated needles to inject drugs.

Symptoms and signs

  • Abdominal pain or distention
  • Breast development in males
  • Dark urine and pale or clay-coloured stools
  • Fatigue
  • General itching
  • Jaundice
  • Loss of appetite
  • Low-grade fever
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Weight loss
  • liver damage,(may progress to cirrhosis and even liver failure; peculiar to Hepatitis C)


  • Blood test
  • Stool test


  • Vaccinations

Available for hepatitis A and hepatitis B

There is currently no vaccine to prevent hepatitis C.

  • Medicines
  • Stop Immediately alcohol and cigarettes. They aggravate liver damage in chronic hepatitis and can cause more rapid progression to cirrhosis.


  • Hepatitis A vaccine is available for people in high-risk groups, like day care and nursing home workers, laboratory workers, and those traveling to parts of the world where hepatitis is common.
  • Routine childhood immunization against hepatitis A is also recommended.
  • Hepatitis B vaccine is now given to all infants and unvaccinated children under 18. The vaccine is available for adults at high risk, such as health care professionals, IV drug users, and those with risky sexual behavior.
  • Avoid contact with blood or blood products.
  • Avoid sexual contact with a person infected with hepatitis or unknown health history. Practice safe sex at all times.
  • Wash your hands after going to the bathroom and before handling food.
  • Avoid sharing plates, utensils, or bathrooms with someone who has hepatitis A.
  • Do not share razors, needles, or toothbrushes.
  • When traveling to endemic areas, do not eat uncooked or partially cooked foods. Drink bottled water.
  • DO NOT use recreational IV drugs. If you are already an IV drug user, never share needles and seek help from a needle exchange or drug treatment program.
  • Be cautious when receiving tattoos or piercings.
  • Do not drink alcohol at the same time that you take acetaminophen. If you already have hepatitis, do not use either (to avoid further liver damage).

Leave a Comment