Heart Diseases

Heart disease is any disorder that affects the heart’s ability to function normally.

       Types–

  • Acute mitral regurgitation
  • Alcoholic cardiomyopathy
  • Aortic regurgitation
  • Aortic stenosis
  • Arrhythmias
  • Cardiogenic shock
  • Chronic mitral regurgitation
  • Congenital heart disease
  • Coronary artery disease (CAD)
  • Dilated cardiomyopathy
  • Endocarditis
  • Heart attack (myocardial infarction)
  • Heart failure
  • Heart tumor
  • Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
  • Idiopathic cardiomyopathy
  • Ischemic cardiomyopathy
  • Mitral stenosis
  • Mitral valve prolapse
  • Peripartum cardiomyopathy
  • Pulmonary stenosis
  • Stable angina
  • Tricuspid regurgitation
  • Unstable angina

 CAUSES-

  • Narrowing of or blockage in the coronary arteries supplying blood to the heart muscle
  • Disturbed sleep pattern
  • Excessive  smoking and alcohol
  • Haphazard lifestyle
  • Undue stress(physical and mental)
  • Taking unprescribed medications(specially antibiotics)
  • Not eating good(fatty, oily food ,binge-eating)
  • Lack of physical exercises
  • Obesity
  • Persistent high blood pressure
  • High blood cholesterol
  • Diabetes(especially NIDDM)
  • Hereditary(Heart disease tends to run in families)

Symptoms And Signs—-

  • Breathing Problems
  • Chest Discomfort Or Pain
  • Cyanosis (Bluish Skin Discoloration)
  • Depression
  • Dizziness
  • Fatigue
  • Headache
  • Lethargy
  • Lightheadedness
  • Loss Of Appetite
  • Loss Of Consciousness
  • Memory Problems
  • Narcolepsy(Sudden Sleep)
  • Palpitations
  • Shortness Of Breath
  • Somnolence(Daytime Sleepiness)

INVESTIGATIONS—

                    There are many invasive and non-invasive tests done to detect heart diseases.

  1. Cardiac catheterization (cath; coronary angiography)
  2. Chest x-ray
  3. Computed tomography (CT) scan
  4. Echocardiogram
  5. Exercise stress test
  6. Holter monitor (ambulatory electrocardiogram)
  7. Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA)
  8. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
  9. Muga scan
  10. Pet test
  11.  Pharmacologic stress test
  12.  Resting electrocardiogram (ECG )
  13.  Signal-averaged electrocardiogram (SAECG)
  14.  Stress echocardiography
  15.  Technetium stress test
  16.  Thallium stress test
  17.  Transesophageal echocardiogram (TEE)

Treatment-

Medicines

Medical  Procedures

Surgery

PREVENTION–

A healthy lifestyle can lower the risk of heart diseases.

  1. Adopt healthy diet(Low in saturated and trans fats, rich in omega-3 fatty acids, High in fiber, Low in salt and sugar)
  2. Be physically active (moderate-intensity activity)
  3. Quit smoking
  4. Lower the blood cholesterol level(keep intake of calories from fat under 30% of total calories)
  5. Control Blood Pressure and Diabetes
  6. Avoid HRT if at risk of heart disease
  7. Maintain a healthy weight(Eat smaller portions and choose lower calorie foods
  8. Manage stress(relaxation therapy)

 

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