Heart Diseases

Heart disease is any disorder that affects the heart’s ability to function normally.

Types of heart diseases

  • Acute mitral regurgitation
  • Alcoholic cardiomyopathy
  • Aortic regurgitation
  • Aortic stenosis
  • Arrhythmias
  • Cardiogenic shock
  • Chronic mitral regurgitation
  • Congenital heart disease
  • Coronary artery disease (CAD)
  • Dilated cardiomyopathy
  • Endocarditis
  • Heart attack (myocardial infarction)
  • Heart failure
  • Heart tumour
  • Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
  • Idiopathic cardiomyopathy
  • Ischemic cardiomyopathy
  • Mitral stenosis
  • Mitral valve prolapse
  • Peripartum cardiomyopathy
  • Pulmonary stenosis
  • Stable angina
  • Tricuspid regurgitation
  • Unstable angina


  • Narrowing of or blockage in the coronary arteries supplying blood to the heart muscle
  • Disturbed sleep pattern
  • Excessive  smoking and alcohol
  • Haphazard lifestyle
  • Undue stress (physical and mental)
  • Taking unprescribed medications (especially antibiotics)
  • Not eating good (fatty, oily food,binge-eating)
  • Lack of physical exercises
  • Obesity
  • Persistent high blood pressure
  • High blood cholesterol
  • Diabetes (especially NIDDM)
  • Hereditary (Heart disease tends to run in families)

Symptoms and signs

  • Breathing Problems
  • Chest Discomfort Or Pain
  • Cyanosis (Bluish Skin Discoloration)
  • Depression
  • Dizziness
  • Fatigue
  • Headache
  • Lethargy
  • Lightheadedness
  • Loss Of Appetite
  • Loss Of Consciousness
  • Memory Problems
  • Narcolepsy (Sudden Sleep)
  • Palpitations
  • Shortness Of Breath
  • Somnolence (Daytime Sleepiness)


There are many invasive and non-invasive tests done to detect heart diseases.

  • Cardiac catheterization (cath; coronary angiography)
  • Chest x-ray
  • Computed tomography (CT) scan
  • Echocardiogram
  • Exercise stress test
  • Holter monitor (ambulatory electrocardiogram)
  • Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA)
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
  • Muga scan
  • Pet test
  •  Pharmacologic stress test
  •  Resting electrocardiogram (ECG )
  •  Signal-averaged electrocardiogram (SAECG)
  •  Stress echocardiography
  •  Technetium stress test
  •  Thallium stress test
  •  Transesophageal echocardiogram (TEE)

Heart Attack

Also called myocardial infarction; a heart attack is a serious medical emergency in which the supply of blood to the heart is suddenly blocked, usually by a blood clot. The lack of blood in the heart can seriously damage the heart muscles. If left untreated, the muscles begin to die.


  • Coronary heart disease
  • Smoking
  • High-fat diet
  • Diabetes
  • Obesity
  • Age above 45 yrs
  • Male (more prone)

Signs and symptoms

  • Chest pain
    1. feel like the chest is being pressed or squeezed by a heavy object/uncomfortable pressure
    2. pain can radiate from the chest to the jaw, neck, arms and back
  • Shortness of breath
  • An overwhelming feeling of anxiety, fear, denial
  • Cold, clammy skin
  • Nausea, vomiting


  • Medicines
  • Medical  Procedures
  • Surgery


A healthy lifestyle can lower the risk of heart disease.

  • Adopt a healthy diet. Low in saturated and trans fats, rich in omega-3 fatty acids, High in fibre, and low in salt and sugar.
  • Be physically active (moderate-intensity activity)
  • Quit smoking
  • Lower the blood cholesterol level. Keep intake of calories from fat under 30% of total calories.
  • Control Blood Pressure and Diabetes
  • Avoid HRT if at risk of heart disease
  • Maintain a healthy weight. Eat smaller portions and choose lower-calorie foods
  • Manage stress (relaxation therapy)

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