Goiter

A goiter is an abnormal swelling of the thyroid gland that causes a lump to form in the throat. The thyroid gland is a small butterfly-shaped gland in the neck that is located just in front of the windpipe. It produces thyroid hormones, which help to regulate the body’s metabolism. The thyroid gland is not usually noticeable. However, if it swells it produces a lump in the throat that is known as a  goitre

CAUSES

  1. Iodine deficiency
    1. people who live inland or at high elevations
    2. diet high in hormone-inhibiting foods(cabbage, broccoli and cauliflower)
  2. Graves’ disease

(Over stimulation of thyroid (hyperthyroidism)        

3. Hashimoto’s disease

Autoimmune disorder (hypothyroidism)

4. Multinodular goiter

5. Solitary thyroid nodules

6. Thyroid cancer

7. Pregnancy

Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG), may enlarge thyroid gland slightly

8. Thyroiditis

9. Family history of autoimmune diseases

10. Medications

    1. Immunosuppressants
    2. Antiretrovirals
    3. amiodarone
    4. lithium

11. Radiation exposure

Symptoms And Signs–

  1. Cough
  2. Difficulty breathing
  3. Difficulty swallowing
  4. Dizziness
  5. Hoarse voice
  6. Small nodule or lump on the front of the neck
  7. Sore throat
  8. Vein swelling in the neck
  9. Of  hyperthyroidism
  • Protruding eyes
  • Unexplained weight loss
  • Heat intolerance
  • Perspiration

10. Of hypothyroidism

  • Depression
  • Weakness
  • Unexplained weight gain

Investigations—

  1. Hormonal assay
  2. An antibody test
  3. Ultrasonography(neck)
  4. Thyroid scan(radioisotope technique)
  5. Fine needle aspiration biopsy

TREATMENT–

  1. Wait And Watch

               Small goiter not posing any problem

  1. Ayurvedic Medicines
  2. Surgery (thyroidectomy)

 

COMPLICATIONS

  1. Thyroid cancer
  2. Toxic nodular goiter

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