Epilepsy is a brain disorder involving repeated, spontaneous seizures of any type. Seizures (“fits,” convulsions) are episodes of disturbed brain function that cause changes in attention or behavior. They are caused by abnormally excited electrical signals in the brain.
- Symptomatic epilepsy (damage /disruption to brain)
- Cryptogenic epilepsy (no evidence of damage to brain)
- Idiopathic epilepsy (no obvious cause)
- Lack of sleep
- Alcohol, particularly binge drinking and during a hangover
- Illegal drugs –
5. Flashing lights (photosensitive epilepsy)
6. High temperature (fever)
7. Just before, during or after menstruation in women
- Symptomatic epilepsy
- Cerebral palsy
- Birth defects (umbilical cord getting twisted or compressed during labour)
- Head injuries
- Brain tumours
- Idiopathic epilepsy
No apparent cause for epilepsy can be found. Researchers have suggested that small genetic changes in the brain could be the cause of epilepsy.
3. Cryptogenic epilepsy
- No definite cause for epilepsy
- Only few evidences in favour of diagnosis–
Developmental condition (autistic spectrum disorder),
Unusual EEG readings
4. Simple partial seizures
- Vascular abnormality
- Developmental abnormality
- Infective abnormality.
5. Complex seizure—-
- Hippocampus sclerosis
- developmental or brain damage during a febrile convulsion.
Symptoms And Signs
- Staring spells
- Loss of consciousness
- Violent convulsions
- An aura consisting of a strange sensation (tingling, smelling an odor that isn’t actually there, or emotional changes) prior to each seizure.
Tension for hours/days.
- Loss of consciousness without warning.
Patient becomes rigid and may urinate.
Patient may have an apnoeic spell of breathing due to contraction of thoracic and abdominal muscles.
- Tonic phase (10sec)
Patient eyes are open
Bladder/bowel control lost
- Clonic phase (1-2min) –
Tremor due to generalized shaking
Eyes roll backwards and forwards
Tongue bite may occur.
- Post-ictal phase
- Consciousness not lost
- Abrupt onset with full recovery.
- Blinking and rolling of eyes several times a day.
- Single or multiple muscle jerks
- Consciousness not lost
Simple partial seizures (SPS)—-
- Short lasting seizure
- Abrupt onset.
- Epileptic discharge site–
- Frontal lobe of brain–Jerking of limbs
- Parietal lobe of brain–Sensory
- Temporal lobe of brain–Psychic
- Neurologic examination
EEGs can often be normal after a seizure or between seizures, so it may be necessary to perform a longer test.
- Blood sugar
- CSF (cerebrospinal fluid) analysis
- Kidney function tests
- Liver function tests
- Head CT
- MRI scan
- Lumbar puncture
Care of patient during seizures–
- Move patient to place of safety (away from fire, water and machinery).
- Do not try to forcibly introduce a gag or tightly rolled handkerchief once seizure begins. Do not use metallic or plastic objects.
- After seizure is over, keep patient in semi-prone position, ensure patent airway and proper oxygenation.
- With continued convulsions, hospitalize the patient.
Surgical removal of an epileptic lesion in temporal lobe is highly effective.
- Difficulty learning
- Aspiration pneumonia(By inhaling fluid into the lungs)
- Injury from falls, bumps, or self-inflicted bites during a seizure
- Injury from having a seizure while driving or operating machinery
- Many epilepsy medications cause birth defects
- Permanent brain damage (stroke or other damage)
- Prolonged seizures or numerous seizures without complete recovery between them (status epilepticus)
- Side effects of few medications
- Proper diet and sleep
- Staying away from illegal drugs
- No to alcohol
- wear helmets(to prevent head injury)
- Persons with uncontrolled seizures should not–
- Climb to high places
- Go for biking
- Swim alone.