Diarrhea

All you should know about Diarrhea

Diarrhea is the passing of watery stools more than three times a day. It is often a symptom of an infection or long-term condition.

Classification–

  1. Acute

        Diarrhea that comes on suddenly, and lasts for five to 10 days

  1. Chronic

          Diarrhea that lasts for more than two weeks.

Causes—

Acute diarrhea is usually caused by a viral or bacterial infection and affects almost everyone from time to time.

Chronic diarrhea may be a sign of a more serious condition, such as irritable bowel syndrome or Crohn’s disease, and should always be investigated.

  1. Viral infections
  • Noro-virus
  • Rotavirus
  • Adenovirus

2. Bacterial infections

  • Campylobacter
  • Salmonellae
  • Shigella
  • Escherichia coli
  • Yersinia
  • listeria

3. Medication

  • Antibiotics
  • Chemotherapy
  • Non steroidal anti inflammatory drugs
  • Anti-hypertensive drugs

4. Intolerance to food   

  • Lactose
  • Fructose
  • Some artificial sweeteners
  • milk and milk products

5. Parasites

  • Giardia lamblia
  • Entamoeba histolytica
  • Cryptosporidium

6. Intestinal disorders or diseases

  • Inflammatory bowel disease
  • Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)
  • Diverticulitis
  • Microscopic colitis
  • Celiac disease

7. Other causes—

  • Anxiety
  • Psychological pressures
  • Surgery of digestive system organ
  • Over-swimming

Symptoms And Signs

  1. Abdominal cramps
  2. Abdominal pain
  3. Bloody stools
  4. Dehydration
  5. Fever
  6. Frequent, loose, watery stools
  7. Loss of appetite
  8. Nausea
  9. Pricking sensation
  10. Stomach pains
  11. Vomiting

INVESTIGATIONS—–

  1. Stool examination & culture
  2. Blood tests
  3. Colonoscopy`
  4. X-rays
  5. CT scans 

TREATMENT—

  1. Self-Care —
  • Drink plenty of fluids
  • ORS (oral re-hydration solution) to avoid dehydration
  • BRAT diet (bananas, rice, apple sauce, and toast)
  • Rest in case of children

2. Medication–

  • Medicines
  • Electrolyte solutions to prevent salt deficiency

3. Diarrhea Remedies

  • Blackberry, Blueberry, and Raspberry leaves when taken as tea may help diarrhea.
  • Chamomile tea may also act as a diarrhea remedy.

COMPLICATIONS—

  1. Dehydration
  2. Orthostatic hypotension
  3. Shock
  4. Kidney failure
  5. Confusion
  6. Acidosis
  7. Coma
  8. Electrolytes (minerals) loss
  9. Irritation of the anus

 Prevention–

  1. Personal hygiene
  • Individuals caring for sick children or adults in any setting should carefully wash their hands after changing diapers, helping an individual use the bathroom, or assisting an individual around the home.
  • Children should be instructed to wash their hands frequently, especially after using the bathroom.
  •  Always wash hands before and after handling food.
  1. Food hygiene—
  • Use care when preparing raw poultry or meat.
  • Food should be cooked to the recommended temperatures
  • Avoid raw or rare meat and poultry
  • Utensils coming in contact with raw food should be cleaned in soap and hot water.
  • Fruits and vegetables consumed raw should be thoroughly rinsed in clean water.

Food to be avoided—

  1. Unpasteurized (raw) milk may be contaminated with bacteria and should always be avoided.
  2. Unpasteurized fruit juice or cider should generally be avoided even if the source is not known
  3. Do not eat foods from street vendors.
  4. Don’t drink water or drinks with ice cubes made from tap water        

1 thought on “Diarrhea”

  1. Thank you for another great article. Where else could anyone get that kind of information in such a perfect way of writing? I have a presentation next week, and I am on the look for such information.

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