Diabetic Retinopathy

Diabetic retinopathy is damage to the eye’s retina that occurs with long-term diabetes

Causes

  1. Damage to blood vessels of the retina.
  2. More severe diabetes for a longer period of time

Classification

  1. Non-proliferative
  2. Proliferative

Symptoms And Signs

  1. Blurred vision and gradual vision loss
  2. Floaters
  3. Shadows or missing areas of vision
  4. Difficulty seeing at night time
  5. No symptoms before major bleeding occurs in eye

Investigations

  1. Retinal photography
  2. Fluorescein angiography

Treatment

Treatment usually does not reverse damage that has already occurred, but it can help keep the disease from getting worse

Medical–

  • Photo-coagulation
  1. laser photo-coagulation is used to treat macular edema.
  2. Panretinal photo-coagulation treats a large area of retina
  • Vitrectomy( to repair retinal detachment)
  • Drugs (to prevent abnormal blood vessels from growing)
  • Corticosteroids (injected into the eyeball )  

Self-Care–

    1. Make sure your home is safe so you do not fall
    2. Organize your home so that you can easily find what you need
    3. Get help to make sure you are taking your medicines correctly

Complications

  1. Blindness
  2. Glaucoma
  3. Retinal detachment

Prevention

  1. Tight control of blood sugar, blood pressure, and cholesterol
  2. Do not smoke.
  3. Avoid resistance or high-impact exercises, which can strain already weakened blood vessels in the eyes.
  4. Regular eye examination in case of–
  • Children older than 10 years who have had diabetes for 3 – 5 years or more
  • Adults and adolescents with type 2 diabetes soon after diagnosis
  • Adolescents and adults with type 1 diabetes within 5 years of diagnosis

 

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