Amoebiasis

Amoebic dysentry or Enteritis

Causative agent–

Entamoeba histolytica.

Transmission by–

Contaminated  food and water

Types–

  • Intestinal amoebiasis (invasive amoebiasis)
  • Extraintestinal amoebiasis
  • Asymptomatic amoebiasis

Symptoms and Signs—

Intestinal Amoebiasis

  • Malaise
  • Weight loss
  • Mimic appendicitis.
  • Acute colitis
  • Ameboma formation
  • Stools are heme-positive
  • loose stools(10-12) with blood and mucus
  • Spasmodic abdominal pain

Extraintestinal amoebiasis

Amoebic liver abscess

  • Fever
  • Right upper quadrant pain
  • Tenderness of less than 10 days’ duration.
  • Weight loss
  • Cough
  • Jaundice

Pleuropulmonary amebiasis

  • Cough
  • Pleuritic chest pain
  • Respiratory distress

Cerebral amebiasis

  • Abrupt onset of nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Headache
  • Mental status change

Investigations–

  • Ultrasound
  •  CT
  •  MRI
  •  X-ray
  • Examination of stools under a microscope
  •  Sigmoidoscopy 
  • Serology – ELISA
  • CBC

Treatment–

  • Medicines
  • Amoebic liver abscess aspiration

Complications–

  • Amoebic cutis
  • Amoebic peritonitis
  • Amoebic vulvovaginitis
  • Broncho pleural fistula
  • Empyema lung
  • Lung abscess
  • Malnutrition
  • Meningoencephalitis
  • Pericolic and pericaecal abscess
  • Pulmono pleural fistula
  • Rectovaginal fistula
  • Rectovesicle fistula
  • Severe ulceration of the gastrointestinal mucosa
  • Stunting of growth.
  • Sub-diaphragmatic abscess

Prevention—

  • Practice general hygiene(hand wash, separate towels, sanitary hygiene)
  • Avoid raw vegetables when in endemic areas, as they may have been fertilized using human faeces.
  • Boil water or treat with iodine tablets.
  • Sedimentation and filtration of water supplies are necessary to reduce the incidence of infection
  • Avoid eating Street Foods especially in public places where others are sharing sauces in one container

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