Acne is a chronic  inflammatory skin condition that affects most people at some point during their life. It causes spots to develop on the skin, usually on the face, back and chest. The symptoms of acne can be mild, moderate or severe.

acne

           CLASSIFICATION

Acne Vulgaris     

Acne Fulimans

Acne Rosacea 

Acne Conglobat

Pyoderma Faciale

 Causes–

  • Acne develops as a result of blockages in follicles.
  • Hormonal—
    In Teenagers—
  1. Androgens cause the follicular glands to grow larger and make more sebum.
  2. Anabolic steroids
  3. Testosterone
  4. Dihydrotestosterone(DHT)
  5. Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate(DHEAS)
  6. Insulin-like growth factor 1(IGF-1)

In adult women –

  1. Pregnancy
  2. Polycystic Ovarian Disorder
  3. Cushing Syndrome
  4. Menopause
  • Genetic–

The tendency to develop acne runs in families. A family history of acne is associated with an earlier occurrence of acne and an increased number of retentional acne lesions.

  • Psychological —

According to studies increased acne severity is significantly associated with increased stress levels.

  • Infections—

Propionibacterium acnes(P.acnes)
Staphylococcus epidermis

  • Diet

High sugar loaded diet

Cow’s milk

Chocolates,pizzas(not proven)

  • Drugs—

Oral/injected steroids

Anti-convulsants

  • Cosmetics (containing chemicals and vegetable oil)
  • Some nutritional deficiencies.

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS—

  1. Seborrhea
  2. Comedones
  3. Blemishes
  4. Papules
  5. Pustules
  6. Nodules
  7. Scars
  8. Icepick scars(deep pits)
  9. Box car scars(angular scars)
  10. Rolling scars(wavy type)
  11. Hypertrophic scars(thickened scars)
  12. Fever
  13. Aching joints

Treatment–                                                        
Cosmetic procedures—

  1. Dermabrasion (used to remove sun-damaged skin and to remove/reduce scars and dark spots on the skin)
  2. Microdermabrasion( to eliminate the superficial layer of the skin called the epidermis)

Phototherapy ( with red and blue light) visible light has been successfully employed to treat mild to moderate acne  – in particular intense violet light (405–420 nm) generated by purpose-built fluorescent lighting, dichroic bulbs, LEDs or lasers

Laser treatment-

The laser is used to produce one of the following effects:

  1. to burn away the follicle sac from which the hair grows
  2. to burn away the sebaceous gland, which produces the oil
  3. to induce formation of oxygen in the bacteria, killing them

Surgery–

 For people with cystic acne, boils can be drained through surgical lancing

Home remedies

  1. Aloe vera
  2. Neem
  3. Turmeric
  4. Papaya
  5. Tea tree oil

Skin care

  1. Mild cleansers
  2. Exfoliating cleansers
  3. Antibacterial cleansers
  4. Peeling agents
  5. Gentle astringent/toner

COMPLICATIONS—

Acne itself does not have any known complications .These are only due to the adverse effects of medications and surgery.

PREVENTION—

Take care of skin with the following regimen–

  1. Cleanse twice daily with a 5% benzoyl peroxide or 2% salicylic acid
  2. Apply a gel or cream containing 5% benzoyl peroxide, sulfur or resorcinol
  3. At night, apply a spot cream containing sulfur to the affected areas.
  4. Use a light skin moisturizer and water-based oil-free makeup.