An abortion is the expulsion of products of conception whether spontaneous or induced before the 28 weeks of gestation.


Chromosomal Abnormality


Placental abnormalities

Maternal disease

Faults in gamete

Poor nutrition

Excess to alcohol and Smoking

 Classification of abortion

On the basis of the degreeOn the basis of causeOn the basis of infection
types of abortion

Signs and symptoms

Types of abortionSignsSymptoms
ThreatenedBleeding through the cervical canal


Closed Os

a.    Amenorrhoea of 2-3 months


b. Slight painless vaginal bleeding

c.    Bright red colour bleeding

d.    Mild/no discomfort

InevitableDilated cervical canal


The palpable

the lower pole of the sac The size

of uterus corresponds to the duration of amenorrhoea

a. Severe vaginal bleeding in the beginning


b. Then heavy bleeding with passage of clots

c. Painful uterine contractions

IncompleteOpen internal Os


Admit one finger

Soft and enlarged uterus

a. Continuous bleeding/passage of large clots


b. Bleeding may continue for months

c. Regular menstruation is not established

d. Lower abdominal pain may be present

CompleteClosed cervix
Firm and bulky uterus
a. Less or no bleeding


b.  No pain

c.  Brownish vaginal  discharge stops within 7-10 days

d. Regular menstruation is established within 1-2 months

MissedUterus soft


Size less than a period of amenorrhoea

Closed Os

a.    Amonorrhoea of 4-5 months with early pregnancy symptoms


b. Slight, repeated vaginal bleeding which may subside on rest or aggravates despite treatment

c. No progressive enlargement of abdomen/breasts

SpontaneousNon-specifica. Heavy bleeding with products of conception


b. No/less abdominal pain

c. Bleeding subsides completely only after expulsion of sac

RecurrentIncompetent Osa. Abortion occurs at least 3 times


b. It is spontaneous

SepticTender lower abdomen


Distension may be present


Bowel sounds may be sluggish or absent

Os may or may not be open

Bulky, soft uterus

Firm and indurated adnexa with marked tenderness

a. Fever with chills and rigour  
b. Pain in the abdomen
c. Vomiting
d. Diarrhoea
e. Dry, coated tongue

f. Scanty/heavy bleeding

g. Purulent offensive vaginal discharge

signs and symptoms of abortion