Rubella (German measles) is a contagious disease. It affects the fetus if the mother is infected in the early months of her pregnancy. All girls aged 11 to 19 years and women of childbearing age are at risk of developing German measles.


  • This disease spreads through the air by coughing, sneezing, or simply talking.
  • Children and adults who were never vaccinated against rubella. 

Symptoms And Signs

  • Fever
  • Headache
  • Malaise
  • Runny nose before the rash appears
  • Bruising (rare)
  • Bloodshot eyes
  • Muscle or joint pain
  • Congenital deformities—-
  1. Deafness
  2. Cataract
  3. Heart defects
  4. Mental retardation
  5. Impaired vision


  • Nasal or throat swab for culture.
  • Blood test(for antibodies)

Treatment of Rubella

Children can be protected against German measles with a dose of MMR at 12-15 months

If missed, a separate vaccine should be given to:

  • all girls at puberty (12 years and above)
  • all women of childbearing age and if missed Post-delivery.

Even males should be vaccinated because infected males can transmit this virus to the females of their families.

Defects that occur with congenital rubella syndrome can be treated.


  • Miscarriage
  • Stillbirth

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