Rubella

Rubella (German measles) is a contagious disease. Rubella affects the fetus, if the mother is infected in the early months of her pregnancy. All girls aged 11 to 19 years and women in the childbearing age are at risk of developing Rubella.

Causes—–

  • Rubella spreads through air by coughing, sneezing, or simply talking.
  • Children and adults who were never vaccinated against rubella. 

Symptoms And Signs–

  • Fever
  • Headache
  • Malaise
  • Runny nose before the rash appears
  • Bruising (rare)
  • Bloodshot eyes
  • Muscle or joint pain
  • Congenital deformities—-
  1. Deafness
  2. Cataract
  3. Heart defects
  4. Mental retardation
  5. Impaired vision

Investigations–

  • Nasal or throat swab for culture.
  • Blood test(rubella antibodies)

Treatment— 

Children can be protected against Rubella with a dose of MMR at 12-15 months

If missed, separate vaccine against should be given to:

  • all girls at puberty (12 years and above)
  • all women of child bearing age and if missed Post-delivery.

Even males should be vaccinated against Rubella because infected males can transmit this virus to the females of their family.

Defects that occur with congenital rubella syndrome can be treated.

Complications–

  • Miscarriage
  • Stillbirth

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