Prostate Cancer

Prostate cancer is one of the most common types of cancer in men. Prostate cancer usually grows slowly and initially remains confined to the prostate gland, where it may not cause serious harm. While some types of prostate cancer grow slowly and may need minimal or no treatment, other types are aggressive and can spread quickly.

Causes—

  • Age 

Risk of prostate cancer rises with age, from about 50 years

  • Ethnic group 

It is more common among men of African-Caribbean and African descent.

  • Family history 

Having a close male relative who had prostate cancer increases the risk of developing prostate cancer.

  • Diet

Diet high in calcium is linked to an increased risk of developing prostate cancer.

Symptoms And Signs–

  • Blood in semen
  • Bone and back pain
  • Haematuria
  • Hard and bumpy gland
  • Hesitancy
  • Incomplete voiding
  • loss of appetite
  • Nocturia
  • Pain in the testicles
  • Straining
  • Unexplained weight loss
  • Urgency
  • Weak flow

Investigations—

  • Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing
  • Digital rectal examination
  • Transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy (TRUS)
  • Gleason score of 7 -moderate chance of the cancer spreading
  • Gleason score of 8 or above -significant chance of spreading of cancer
  • MRI (Magnetic resonance imaging)
  • CT (computed tomography scan)
  • Isotope bone scan

Stages  Of  Prostate Cancer

Treatment–

  • Surgery

Radical prostatectomy. It can also be done with robotic surgery.

  • Radiation therapy

          External beam radiation therapy uses high-powered x-rays pointed at the prostate gland.

  • Proton therapy
  • Hormone therapy

Complications–

  • Metastasis to bones or other organs
  • Erectile dysfunction

Prevention–

  • Diet
  1. Vegetarian
  2. Low-fat(high in omega-3 fatty acids)
  3. Contain lycopene (tomatoes and other red fruit) and selenium( brazil nuts)
  • Regular exercise reduce the risk of prostate cancer

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