Polycystic Disease Of Kidneys

Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is a genetic disorder characterized by the growth of numerous cysts in the kidneys. These clusters of fluid-filled sacs interfere with the ability of kidneys to filter waste products from the blood.

Classification—

  1. Autosomal dominant PKD
  2. Autosomal recessive PKD
  3. Acquired PKD

Autosomal dominant PKD

Autosomal dominant PKD means that if one parent has the disease, there is a 50 percent chance that the disease gene will pass to a child. The polycystic kidney roughly retains the same shape as the healthy kidney.

Symptoms And Signs–

  • Pain in the back and between the ribs and hips (temporary or persistent, mild or severe.)
  • Headaches.

 Complications–

  • Urinary tract infections
  • Hematuria
  • Liver and pancreatic cysts
  • Abnormal heart valves
  • High blood pressure
  • Kidney stones
  • Aneurysms in the brain
  • Diverticulosis

Autosomal recessive PKD

Autosomal recessive PKD is caused by a mutation in the autosomal recessive PKD gene. Parents who do not have PKD can have a child with the disease if both parents carry one copy of the abnormal gene and both pass that gene copy to their baby. If only one parent carries the abnormal gene, the baby cannot get autosomal recessive PKD but could ultimately pass the abnormal gene to his or her children.

Symptoms And Signs—

  • Developmental delay
  • Frequent urination
  • Hemorrhoids
  • Hypertension
  • Kidney failure before reaching adulthood.
  • Liver scarring
  • Low blood-cell counts
  • Respiratory distress/failure
  • Urinary tract infections
  • Varicose veins

Investigations—

  • Urine test
  • Blood test—
    1. FBC
    2. Hematocrit
  • Cerebral angiography
  • USG-Abdomen
  • CT scan-Abdomen
  • MRI-Abdomen.
  • IVP
  • Genetic tests.

Treatment—-

  • Medications
  • Drainage of cysts
  • Surgery
  • Dialysis
  • Renal transplant

 Complications—

  • Anemia
  • Cysts(bleeding/rupture )
  • End-stage kidney disease
  • Hypertension
  • Infection of liver cysts
  • Kidney failure
  • Kidney stones
  • Liver failure( mild to severe)
  • Recurrent infections (urinary tract, kidneys, cysts)

Leave a Comment