Ketoacidosis Diabetic

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a life-threatening complication caused by insulin deficiency. For some, it may be the first sign that someone has diabetes. Hyperglycemia increases the production of fatty acids. These fatty acids are converted into chemicals called ketone bodies, which are toxic at high levels.

Causes—-

  1. Type 1 diabetes not consistent with insulin therapy
  2. Acute illness( pulmonary embolism, heart attacks)
  3. Infection (pneumonia or urinary tract infections)
  4. Intentionally reducing insulin doses in order to lose weight
  5. Alcohol abuse
  6. Physical injury

 

Symptoms And Signs—

  1. Nausea and vomiting
  2. Deep and rapid breathing may occur with frequent sighing
  3. Rapid heartbeat
  4. Severe dehydration

Investigation-

A simple urine test can determine if high ketone levels are present. 

Treatment—-

Life-saving treatment uses rapid replacement of fluids with a saline solution followed by low-dose insulin and potassium replacement.

Complications—-

  1. Adult respiratory distress syndrome.
  2. Aspiration pneumonia
  3. Brain damage
  4. Cerebral edema
  5. Coma
  6. Death

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