Hypertension is usually defined as having a sustained blood pressure of 140/90 mm of Hg or above. Blood pressure is defined as the amount of pressure that is exerted on the artery walls as blood moves through them.

Blood pressure is measured as Systolic pressure (pressure exerted when the heart beats and forces blood in the body and Diastolic pressure (pressure when the heart is resting in between beats)


  • Primary (essential hypertension)
  • Secondary 

Causes of high blood pressure


  • Poor diet
  • Lack of exercise
  • Being overweight
  • Excessive alcohol consumption

Primary hypertension

  • Old age
  • Family history of high blood pressure 
  • High-fat diet
  • A high amount of salt in the diet
  • Smoking
  • Stress

Secondary hypertension

It is the result of an underlying condition or cause.

  • Kidney diseases
  • Narrowing of the arteries
  • Conditions that affect the body’s tissue( lupus )
  • Medication( oral contraceptive pill, NSAIDs)
  • Recreational drugs( cocaine, amphetamines and crystal meth)
  • Pregnancy
  • Endocrine diseases—
  1. Cushing’s syndrome
  2. Conn’s syndrome
  3. Phaeochromocytoma
  4. Acromegaly
  5. Hyperparathyroidism
  6. Diabetes mellitus

Symptoms and signs of Hypertension

  • Blurred or double vision
  • Chest pain
  • Confusion
  • Ear noise or buzzing
  • Headache
  • Irregular heartbeat
  • Nosebleeds
  • Shortness of breath
  • Tiredness
  • Renal impairment


  • Blood for  FBC, Creatinine, Glucose, Lipid profile
  • Urine (for RBCs, glucose, protein)
  • ECG
  • Echocardiography

Treatment of hypertension

Non-drug treatment

  • Smoking cessation
  • Reduce weight
  • Encourage regular exercise (walking, swimming, cycling)
  • Decrease alcohol intake
  • Decrease salt intake
  • Increase fruit and vegetable intake
  • Decrease caffeine-rich products
  • Encourage stress management


Ayurvedic medicines under the guidance of an Ayurveda expert.


How to prevent High blood pressure

  • Make changes to lifestyle
  • Eat a healthier diet
  • Exercise more regularly
  • Reduce the amount of alcohol
  • Follow all measures given in non-drug treatment.

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