ATTENTION DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER (ADHD)

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a group of behavioural symptoms that include inattentiveness, hyperactivity and impulsiveness.

CLASSIFICATION–

  1. Hyperactive-impulsive
  2. Inattentive
  3. Combined

 SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS

A. CHILDREN

General Symptoms—

  1. A short attention span
  2. Being easily distracted
  3. constant fidgeting
  4.  Learning difficulties
  5. Restlessness
  6. Sleep disorders

Specific Symptoms–       

A. Inattentiveness—

  • A very short attention span
  • Appearing forgetful or losing things
  • Being unable to concentrate
  • Being unable to listen to or carry out instructions
  • Being unable to stick at tasks that are tedious or time consuming
  • Being very easily distracted
  • Constantly changing activity or task
  • Having difficulty organizing tasks
  • Making careless mistakes, for example in schoolwork

B. Hyperactivity

  • Being unable to settle to tasks
  • Being unable to sit still, especially in calm or quiet surroundings
  • Constantly fidgeting
  • Excessive physical movement
  • Excessive talking

C. Impulsiveness—

  • Acting without thinking
  • Being unable to wait for a turn
  • Breaking any set rules
  • Interrupting conversations
  • Little or no sense of danger

B. ADULTS–

  1. Blurting responses, and poor social timing when talking to others
  2. Carelessness and lack of attention to detail
  3. Continually losing or misplacing things
  4. Continually starting new tasks before finishing old ones
  5. Difficulty keeping quiet and speaking out of turn
  6. Extreme impatience
  7. Forgetfulness
  8. Inability to deal with stress
  9. Inability to focus or prioritize
  10. Irritability and a quick temper
  11. Mood swings
  12. Often interrupting others
  13. Poor organizational skills
  14. Restlessness and edginess
  15. Taking risks in activities, often with little or no regard for personal safety or the safety of others

Any problems in childhood are likely to persist into adulthood, which can make life extremely difficult.

CAUSES—

    1. Genes —

Children with ADHD who carry a particular version of a certain gene have thinner brain tissue in the areas of the brain associated with attention and as children with this gene grew up, the brain developed to a normal level of thickness. Their ADHD symptoms also improved.

  1.  Environmental factors.
  • Cigarette smoking
  • Alcohol during pregnancy
  • High exposure to lead

3. Brain injuries
4.
Food additives–

  • Artificial colours
  • preservatives

INVESTIGATIONS—-

                                      There’s no specific test for ADHD. Gathering as much information as possible about the child is the best way to get an accurate diagnosis and rule out other possible causes of child’s symptoms.

TREATMENT—–

  1. Behavior therapy—

 Teachers and parents can learn behavior-changing strategies for dealing with difficult situations.

  1. Psychotherapy
  2. Ayurvedic Medicines
    Cap Safojas
    TabTinifat
    Cap Kushagra
  3. Parenting skills training—

 This help parents to develop ways to understand and guide their child’s behavior

  1. Family therapy.
  2. Social skills training
  3. Support groups

Support groups can offer children with ADHD and their parents a network of social support, information and education.

COMPLICATIONS

                  These are medicine related.

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